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UTXO Selection: How does a wallet decide which utxo to use?

I am using a cold wallet and made a few tx two days ago. However, though what I wanted to send was a very small amount of btc, the wallet made multiple utxo of huge amounts get involved and now all my assets are locked up as the tx are unconfirmed. Questions; Why does a wallet have to use multiple utxo (input>output 2>2 or 3>2) rather than just use one and split it in two (1>2)? (the aimed tx amount is smaller than each utxo) Is the algorithm to select which utxo specific to each wallet or is there any…

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In Bitcoin, what happens if there is no viable nonce?

I'm assuming SHA is perfectly uniform. In bitcoin, there are $2^{32}$ possible inputs per block, which are mapped to $2^{256}$ possible outputs. So there is a $1/2^{224}$ chance that any randomly picked 256-bit string is a possible output hash of one of the possible nonce values. So that means there are $2^{32}$ possible output 256-bit strings. In other words, a 1-to-1 mapping from nonce to output is very likely. The $2^{32}$ possible outputs are distributed uniformly. So that means half of them have a 0 in the first bit, and the other half have a 1. That means there are…

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why do we need 2F prepare certificates instead of just f+1 in PBFT?

i started reading PBFT and i could not understand why do we Need 2F prepare certificate ? the client needs only F + 1 replies not 2F so why not the same rule can be applicable in the prepare phase of the protocol ? same question in the commit phase but this time it is even wierder we need at least 2F +1, again why not only F + 1, i just know that the quorum intersection must be more than 2f+1 but we only need f + 1 replies from that quorum intersection as far as i know !

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Efficient computation of the Banzhaf voting power index

Read and subscribe to these posts on Substack.IntroductionCooperative game theory’s voting power indices will undoubtedly become important tools in blockchain-based governance systems and the pricing of governance tokens in the years to come.In a previous post, we demonstrated the Banzhaf power index and performed a voting power analysis on the weighted voting system of MolochDAO. At the time of the analysis, Moloch’s voting system had fewer than 100 members and less than 8,000 units of voting power.However, real tokens supplies have tens or hundreds of thousands of voters and millions or billions of units of voting power, making computations of their power…

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