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Probability of hash yielding a valid block

I read today in a paper that for BTC every hash has a probability of yielding a valid block and that this is approximated by most of the time. Can someone explain to me how to come up with this formula? Is this something specific to BTC?

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Why do other miners check block validity along with proof of work?

I am new to blockchains and bitcoins. So, please pardon the lack of understanding. Assume I am a miner who adds a bogus transaction (say a transfer from my account which has 0 balance to my other account). I get lucky and solve the proof-of-work puzzle first with this bogus data. I know that the other miners check if my block's data corresponds to my proof-of-work but do they also check if my data is valid? What happens when they realize that my block (which has been added to the blockchain) is invalid? What incentive do they have to perform…

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List of different unknown mining pools

A miner can identify himself when he receive his coinbase transaction, we can view them on website offering block explorer like https://www.blockchain.com/charts/pools Some of these miners are listed as Unknown because blockchain.com has been unable to identify them A large portion of Unknown blocks does not mean an attack on the network, it simply means we have been unable to determine the origin. But when we click on one of those block mined by an Unknown miner we can see that most of them reuse the same addresses for their coinbase transaction but blockchain.com does not seem to list those…

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What is the relationship between bitmain-freq, Hashrate and Power Consumption?

I am running a few old miners (T9+) to heat my home and they are too loud and making a loss (which is ok, as I am interested in the heat). Following this suggestions (sticking with the standard firmware) I already reduced the fan-speed by adding the following entries to /conf/bmminer.conf "bitmain-fan-ctrl": true, "bitmain-fan-pwm": "66", This resulted in an increased temperature of the chips (still below 100 deg C) as can be seen here: coming from here (below 80 deg C): Since I am still not too happy with the noise level (reduction from 75db to 60db) thus I am…

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Can eavesdropping help mining at all?

My understanding is that if a miner uses a particular coinbase address then already this address is offsetting the computation to a whole different set of results… Can someone, mathematically speaking, gain anything from watching what others compute given that every pool or solo-miner is computing in their own interest, their own corner of computation universe? For context in which I thought of this question see https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/issues/3658

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Calculate block hash is different in regtest?

I'm able to calculate the block hash in mainnet and testnet, but I don't get the right hash in regtest. I mint +3000 blocks and I get the block with height 3000 bitcoin-cli getblock $(bitcoin-cli getblockhash 3000) { "hash": "4221d8b10b0a7eb5e050337c76819abf71113f17e266e88cb12df4bf5ce24b55", "confirmations": 502, "strippedsize": 215, "size": 251, "weight": 896, "height": 3000, "version": 536870912, "versionHex": "20000000", "merkleroot": "23b4600b467f18ef0ec18bd73a9b921077486cf67c44c912de114888db184bf9", "tx": [ "23b4600b467f18ef0ec18bd73a9b921077486cf67c44c912de114888db184bf9" ], "time": 1599147354, "mediantime": 1599147353, "nonce": 0, "bits": "207fffff", "difficulty": 4.656542373906925e-10, "chainwork": "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001772", "nTx": 1, "previousblockhash": "4776b1ccad27e2de9ccbdc5bf4ad4d972a89e27a020db1f7b59abb857d77f3be", "nextblockhash": "121512fc6bc1395ada64a6c63ba2c2955ad9cc240a1fc0282b95cf2c2651b381" } Now I save the values in env variable ver=`printf 20000000 | tac -rs ..| tr -d 'n'` prev=`printf 4776b1ccad27e2de9ccbdc5bf4ad4d972a89e27a020db1f7b59abb857d77f3be | tac…

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WordPress :: mine with user’s CPU

We are in 2020 and I was having a look at this post from 2018 which describes 3 WordPress plug-in we might use to mine Bitcoins through users CPU: Simple Monero miner: needs subscription to https://coinhive.com/ (deprecated) SpareChange: needs subscription to http://www.sparechange.io/ (deprecated) Coin Auth: needs subscription to https://coinhive.com/ (deprecated) So it looks like there is nothing I can do, I have to do it by myself. Is there any open source library that allows you to add a .js code to the header of your website and mine Bitcoin in 2020? Why all Coin Hive are gone away? It…

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How many transactions are there in one block

What I understand: When a transaction is made , miners compete to validate it and create a hash . If one miner creates the hash and more than 51% of miners agree on the validity .Then the a block is added to the blockchain. Am I right? My doubt: 1)When a block is added it contains one transaction that is validated or more? Thanks.

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90% confidence interval for mining a block?

I did some math and found that the 90% confidence interval for bitcoin blocks is that the block will take less than 1381.6 seconds. I used the calculation ln(10)*600 with 10 being used because a 90% confidence interval means one in ten blocks are expected to fall outside of this range. Could this be considered a 90% confidence interval? Note: this could change if the difficulty is expected to rise or drop. If block time is 576 seconds, for example, it becomes a 91% confidence interval. In practice this changes a lot once the difficulty adjustment has passed.

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How come some algorithms are better for GPU mining vs CPU mining?

How come some algorithms are better for GPU mining vs CPU mining? From what I know (that may be wrong) most Ethereum miners use GPUs? And bitcoin miners use CPU and ASIC mining? What are the different algorithms out there Sha256, Scrypt, what others are being used? And why some are better to mine with GPUs other's with CPU? If one is to create a new PoW coin isn't there the danger that someone with a lot of ASIC mining power currently for bitcoin can just switch to your network and easily do a 51% attack and bring down your…

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Why is not possible for a hacker to intercept the hashes calculated by a miner, and send it all himself as if he was a miner?

(I tried to make a more specific question, but is a bit confusing to me. Sorry.) When a miner calculate a hash, where exactly does he send to in order to validate it? To all the nodes in the network? Which protocol does it use to send this hashes? For example, HTTPS requires a trusted third party to sign server-side digital certificates, but there is no "server-side" in a decentralized network. Why is not possible for a hacker to intercept all the hashes been sent by a miner or pool, and send it all himself as if he was a…

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Finding legitimate sources of research and info regarding crypto, mining and the blockchain

I'm relatively new to Bitcoin, crypto and the blockchain and mining etc, however due to having over 15 years experience in IT Ive followed BTC etc since it kicked off in (2009?), and would like to learn more about it from a tech point of view and get involved in this exciting new tech that is, in my opinion kind of like e.g Linux (Ubuntu etc) and open source SW, where knowledge and freedom are more important than profit and all of its problems (eg greed , power, etc) and Linux Desktop open source is amazingly secure reliable OS that…

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What stops miners from manipulating “target” difficulty in the block header?

I am relatively new to understanding the fundamentals of the Bitcoin network, and I couldn't find the answer to my question. I understand how mining difficulty/target is decided and calculated in the block header. (hashrate of previous 2015 blocks...) Since the larger the target is, the easier it is to mine the new block, what stops a miner from cheating by giving himself a large target, so that he can mine this new block very fast? Does every node check the target value when they are validating a new block? Thank you

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